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2 Answers

Dual Controls

Asked by: 2300 views FAA Regulations

91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft (except a manned free balloon) that is being used for flight instruction unless that aircraft has fully functioning dual controls. However, instrument flight instruction may be given in an airplane that is equipped with a single, functioning throwover control wheel that controls the elevator and ailerons, in place of fixed, dual controls, when—

(1) The instructor has determined that the flight can be conducted safely; and

(2) The person manipulating the controls has at least a private pilot certificate with appropriate category and class ratings.

Question: Why can a throwover be onlyused for instrument flight instruction? Why not flight instruction for private, recreational, sport, commercial…etc?

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2 Answers

  1. Jon on Apr 10, 2013

    The short answer is safety. The most critical phases of flight are those that happen close to the ground, where time available to recover from a student’s mistake is measured in fractions of a second. Throwover yokes take a couple of seconds to throw over and, unless very carefully coordinated, require one person to remove their hands from the yoke before the other person can take it – not something you want to be wrestling with when your student catches a gust 10 feet off the ground. If the student has a private license, they have demonstrated their ability to control the airplane during takeoff and landing, and during instrument training, everything below 200 feet is eyes-out anyway.

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  2. Dan Chitty on Apr 10, 2013


    Thank you for the feedback.


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